3.1.1 TABLE DDL

3.1.1.1 CREATE TABLE Syntax

CREATE TABLE [IF NOT EXISTS] tbl_name
    (create_definition,...)
    [table_options]
    [partition_options]

create_definition:
    col_name column_definition

column_definition:
    data_type [NOT NULL | NULL] [DEFAULT default_value]
      [AUTO_INCREMENT] [UNIQUE [KEY] | [PRIMARY] KEY]
      [COMMENT 'string']

data_type:
    BIT[(length)]
  | TINYINT[(length)] [UNSIGNED] [ZEROFILL]
  | SMALLINT[(length)] [UNSIGNED] [ZEROFILL]
  | MEDIUMINT[(length)] [UNSIGNED] [ZEROFILL]
  | INT[(length)] [UNSIGNED] [ZEROFILL]
  | INTEGER[(length)] [UNSIGNED] [ZEROFILL]
  | BIGINT[(length)] [UNSIGNED] [ZEROFILL]
  | REAL[(length,decimals)] [UNSIGNED] [ZEROFILL]
  | DOUBLE[(length,decimals)] [UNSIGNED] [ZEROFILL]
  | FLOAT[(length,decimals)] [UNSIGNED] [ZEROFILL]
  | DECIMAL[(length[,decimals])] [UNSIGNED] [ZEROFILL]
  | NUMERIC[(length[,decimals])] [UNSIGNED] [ZEROFILL]
  | DATE
  | TIME[(fsp)]
  | TIMESTAMP[(fsp)]
  | DATETIME[(fsp)]
  | YEAR
  | CHAR[(length)]
  | VARCHAR(length)
  | BINARY[(length)]
  | VARBINARY(length)
  | TINYBLOB
  | BLOB
  | MEDIUMBLOB
  | LONGBLOB
  | TINYTEXT
  | TEXT
  | MEDIUMTEXT
  | LONGTEXT
  | ENUM(value1,value2,value3,...)

table_options:
    table_option [[,] table_option] ...

table_option:
    ENGINE [=] engine_name
  | [DEFAULT] CHARACTER SET [=] charset_name
  | CHECKSUM [=] {0 | 1}
  | [DEFAULT] COLLATE [=] collation_name
  | COMMENT [=] 'string'
  | CONNECTION [=] 'connect_string'
  | KEY_BLOCK_SIZE [=] value
  | MAX_ROWS [=] value
  | MIN_ROWS [=] value
  | PASSWORD [=] 'string'
  | ROW_FORMAT [=] {DEFAULT|DYNAMIC|FIXED|COMPRESSED|REDUNDANT|COMPACT}    
  | STATS_AUTO_RECALC [=] {DEFAULT|0|1}
  | STATS_PERSISTENT [=] {DEFAULT|0|1}
partition_options:
      {[LINEAR] HASH(expr)
       | PARTITION BY [linear] KEY (column_list)
       | RANGE{(expr) | COLUMNS(column_list)}
       | LIST{(expr) | COLUMNS(column_list)}
       }
     [(partition_definition [, partition_definition] ...)]

注意:engine_name仅能为忽略大小写的“InnoDB“。

例:

create table if not exists test(
id bigint primary key AUTO_INCREMENT,
col1 int not null default 5,
col2 int null COMMENT 'info for col1',
col3 varchar(20) not null,
col4 varchar(20) unique key
);

create table test(
id int primary key,
col_bit    BIT(1),
col_tinyint TINYINT(2) UNSIGNED ZEROFILL,
col_smallint SMALLINT(3) UNSIGNED ZEROFILL,
col_mediumint MEDIUMINT(4) UNSIGNED ZEROFILL,
col_int INT(5) UNSIGNED ZEROFILL,
col_integer INTEGER(6) UNSIGNED ZEROFILL,
col_bigint BIGINT(7) UNSIGNED ZEROFILL,
col_real REAL(8,1) UNSIGNED ZEROFILL,
col_double DOUBLE(9,2) UNSIGNED ZEROFILL,
col_float FLOAT(10,3) UNSIGNED ZEROFILL,
col_decimal DECIMAL(11,4) UNSIGNED ZEROFILL,
col_numeric NUMERIC(12,5) UNSIGNED ZEROFILL,
col_date DATE,
col_time TIME(3),
col_timestamp TIMESTAMP(4),
col_datetime DATETIME(5),
col_year YEAR,
col_char CHAR(10) ,
col_varcgar VARCHAR(20) ,
col_binary BINARY(30),
col_varbinary VARBINARY(40),
col_tinyblob TINYBLOB,
col_blob BLOB,
col_mediumblob MEDIUMBLOB,
col_longblob LONGBLOB,
col_tinytext TINYTEXT ,
col_text TEXT ,
col_mediumtext MEDIUMTEXT ,
col_longtext LONGTEXT ,
col_enum ENUM('a','b','c')
);

或者

create table test(
id int primary key,
col1 varchar(20)
)ENGINE = innodb
 AVG_ROW_LENGTH = 20
 DEFAULT CHARACTER SET = utf8
 CHECKSUM = 1
 DEFAULT COLLATE = utf8_general_ci
 COMMENT = 'info of table test'
 CONNECTION = '111111'
 DELAY_KEY_WRITE = 1
 INSERT_METHOD = LAST
 KEY_BLOCK_SIZE = 65536
 MAX_ROWS = 3
 MIN_ROWS = 2
 PACK_KEYS = 1
 ROW_FORMAT = DEFAULT;

3.1.1.2 ALTER TABLE Syntax

ALTER [IGNORE] TABLE tbl_name
    [alter_specification [, alter_specification] ...]

alter_specification:
  | ADD [COLUMN] col_name column_definition
        [FIRST | AFTER col_name ]
  | ADD [COLUMN] (col_name column_definition,...)
  | CHANGE [COLUMN] old_col_name new_col_name column_definition
        [FIRST|AFTER col_name]
  | MODIFY [COLUMN] col_name column_definition
        [FIRST | AFTER col_name]
  | DROP [COLUMN] col_name
  | ADD [INDEX|KEY] [index_name] (index_col_name,...)
  | DROP {INDEX|KEY} index_name
  | ADD PRIMARY KEY (index_col_name,...)
  | DROP PRIMARY KEY

例:

alter table test add column col5 int not null default 1 first,add column col6 int after col4;
alter table test change column col1 col1_new int after col3;
alter table test modify column col1_new varchar(20) after id;
alter table test drop column col6;
alter table test add key idx_col4(col4);
alter table test drop key idx_col4;
alter table test drop primary key;
alter table test add primary key (id);

3.1.1.3 DROP TABLE Syntax

DROP TABLE [IF EXISTS]
    tbl_name [, tbl_name] ...
    [RESTRICT | CASCADE]

例:

drop table if exists test cascade;
drop table test restrict;

3.1.1.4 TRUNCATE TABLE Syntax

TRUNCATE [TABLE] tbl_name

例:

truncate table test;

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